history of India consist of a span of about 3500 years.
Indian culture can be understood in three different co-ordinates,
that is; time, space, and people.
Around the same time, the Maurya, Sunga, Kanva Andhra, Kusana and the Gupta Dynasties reigned. During the same period invasions by Greeks, Shaka, Kushan were faced by the Indian culture.
Though India is known as the cradle place of the civilization,
the sphere of influence is much wider. From Kabul kandahara
to China it had influences of different kind. In return,
these regions contributed their art and science to India
thereby enriching the Indian civilisation. Srilanka
(Ceylon) from 5th Century B.C to 8th Century A.D was culturally
connected to India. Myanmar (Burma) was associated in 1st
to 8th century A.D. Java, Cambodia, Siam Thailand
and Tibet were other nations having cultural similarity.
Buddhist religion originated in India and spread in China,
Korea and Japan at later stages of the history.
India and settled andgot mixed with other races existing
at that time. Indus valley civilization consisted of Mongoloid,
Australoid and Mediterranean race.
Different languages originated from Dravidian languages Sanskrit and Prakrit. Some of the words were borrowed from different races and their respective languages. Some of the words related to their spiritual concepts, their myths and rites contributed to the development of Sanskrit and other languages.
The same era developed the system of worship. Australoid people invented art of agriculture. Zoomorphic deities are believed to be originated from Austric totems.Aryans were originally worshippers of nature. Worship of Shiva was a prearyan custom. Pious fire (Yagnya) and sacrifices of animals was also prevailing in less developed people.This system was evolved further by eliminating animal sacrifice. Similarly Phallic worship and animal worship was replaced by more sophisticated forms of deities.
Art related to painting and sculpture was mainly related to worship. The idols were made up of wood, unburnt soil, and terracotta-like perishable materials. Hence early forms of art did not survive. First such evidence is found in Indus valley civilization.
Initial literature started with prayers to various forms of God. It was developed in prose and verses. Further stories related to Gods, superhumans and heroes amongst humans were developed in the form of myths. The description of the Universe through perception gave rise to philosophy. This was possible as the human beings developed from nomadic tribes to agrarian rural civilization. By the time of Mohenjo- Daro some of the villages were converted to urban population or cities. The development gave rise to the social systems. This lead to division of labour in society and the evolution of political system of administration, judiciary was evolved. In short, it was a civilization in the making.